How to Read Laboratory Results | Normal Value of Laboratory Results

One important point in establishing the diagnosis of a disease is by checking the blood analysis or blood laboratory examination. In addition, with laboratory tests we can see or evaluate the health conditions of patients who are both sick and healthy. Here are some blood tests that are usually done on patients, or when medical check-ups. Of course this is only an illustration, as for the clear and detailed information, you should ask the doctor who treats you. May be useful.

HB (HEMOGLOBIN)

Hemoglobin is a molecule in erythrocytes (red blood cells) and is responsible for transporting oxygen. The quality of blood and the red color of the blood are determined by hemoglobin levels.
Normal Hb value:

Woman 12-16 gr / dL
Men 14-18 gr / dL
Son 10-16 gr / dL
Newborn baby 12-24gr / dL

Hb reduction occurs in patients: anemia of kidney disease, and administration of excessive intravenous fluids (eg infusions). In addition, it can also be caused by certain drugs such as antibiotics, aspirin, antineoplastics (cancer drugs), indomethacin (anti-inflammatory drugs).

Increased hemoglobin occurs in patients with dehydration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, and burns. Drugs that can increase Hb are methyldopa (a type of high blood pressure drug) and gentamicin (medicine for infections of the skin).

 TROMBOCYTE (PLATELET)

Platelets are a component of blood cells that function in the process of stopping bleeding by forming clots.

A decrease to below 100,000 permicroliters (Mel) has the potential to cause bleeding and blockage of blood clots. The normal amount in the human body is 200,000-400,000 / Mel blood. Usually associated with dengue fever. The lower the platelet level, the higher the risk of bleeding.

HEMATOLOGY EXAMINATION

HEMATOCRIT (Ht)

Hematocrit shows the percentage of solid (red blood cell, and other blood levels) with the amount of blood fluid. The higher percentage of HMT means the concentration of blood gets thicker. This occurs because of the leakage (leakage) of fluid out of the blood vessels while the amount of solid substances remains, then the blood becomes thicker. The diagnosis of DHF (Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever) is strengthened with HMT values> 20%.

Normal Ht Value:  

Son 33 -38%
Adult male 40 – 48%
Adult female 37 – 43%

Decreased HMT occurs in patients who experience acute blood loss (sudden blood loss, for example in accidents), anemia, leukemia, chronic kidney failure, mainutrition, vitamin B and C deficiencies, pregnancy, ulceration (gastric ulcer disease).

Increased HMT occurs in dehydration, severe diarrhea, eclampsia (complications in pregnancy), the effects of surgery, and burns, and others.

 

LEUKOCYTE (WHITE BLOOD CELL)

Leukocytes are white blood cells produced by hemopoetic tissue that functions to help the body fight various infectious diseases as part of the immune system.
Normal value:

Newborn baby 9000 -30,000 / mm3
Infants / children 9000 – 12,000 / mm3
Adult 4000-10,000 / mm3

An increase in the number of leukocytes (called leukocytosis) indicates an acute infectious or inflammatory process, such as pneumonia (pneumonia), meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), appendixitis (appendicitis), tuberculosis, tonsillitis, and others. It can also be caused by drugs such as aspirin, procainamide, allopurinol, antibiotics, especially ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and Iain.

Decreasing the number of Leukocytes (called Leukopeni) can occur in certain infections, especially viruses, malaria, alcoholics, and others. It can also be caused by drugs, especially acetaminophen (paracetamol), cancer chemotherapy, oral antidiabetics, antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin, chloramphenicol), sulfonamide (anti-infective drugs mainly caused by bacteria).

CALCULATE TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES (DIFERENTIAL COUNT)

Leukocyte type calculation is a calculation of the type of leukocytes that are in the blood based on the proportion (%) of each type of leukocytes of the total number of leukocytes.

The results of this examination can describe specifically the incidence and process of disease in the body, especially infectious diseases. There are 5 types of leukocytes counted, namely neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. One type of leukocytes is quite large, which is 2x the size of erythrocytes (red blood cells), and is able to move actively in blood vessels and outside blood vessels. Neutrophils react more quickly to inflammation and injury than other leukocytes and are a defense during the acute phase of infection.

An increase in the number of neutrophils is usually in cases of acute infection, inflammation, tissue damage, acute appendixitis (appendicitis), and others.

Decreasing the number of neutrophils is found in viral infections, leukemia, iron deficiency anemia, and others.

EOSINOPHILS

Eosinophils are a type of leukocytes involved in allergies and infections (especially parasites) in the body, and they account for 1-2% of all leukocytes. Normal value in the body: 1 – 4%

Increased eosinophils occur in allergic events, parasitic infections, cancer, brain, testes, and ovaries. A decrease in eosinophils occurs in the event of shock, stress, and burns.

 BASOPHILS

Basophils are a type of leukocytes that account for 0.5-1% of the total number of leukocytes, and are involved in long-term allergic reactions such as asthma, skin allergies, etc. Normal values ​​in the body: o -1%

An increase in basophils is found in the inflammatory process (inflammation), leukemia, and the healing phase of the infection.

Decreased basophils occur in people with stress, hypersensitivity reactions (allergies), and pregnancy

 LYMPHOCYTES

One of the leukocytes that play a role in the process of immunity and the formation of antibodies. Normal value: 20 – 35% of all leukocytes.

Increased lymphocytes are found in lymphocytic leukemia, viral infections, chronic infections, and others.

Decreased lymphocytes occur in people with cancer, aplastic anemia, kidney failure, and others.

 MONOCYTES

Monocytes are one of the large nucleated leukocytes that are 2x larger than red blood cell erythrocytes), the largest in blood circulation and are produced in lymphatic tissue. Normal value in the body: 2 – 8% of the total number of leukocytes.

Increased monocytes occur in viral infections, parasites (for example worms), cancer, and others.

Monocyte reduction is found in lymphocyte leukemia and aplastic anemia.

 ERYTHROCYTES

Red blood cells or erythrocytes come from the Greek language, which is erythros meaning red and kytos which means sheath. Erythrocytes are the most blood type and have the function of carrying oxygen to body tissues. Red blood cells are active for 120 days before being destroyed. In people who live in the highlands who have low oxygen levels then tend to have more red blood cells.

Normal value of erythrocytes:

Men 4.6 – 6.2 million / mm3
Woman 4.2 – 5.4 million / mm3

 THE BLOODY

Examination of the bleeding period is aimed at platelet levels, carried out with an indication (signs) of a history of easy bleeding in the family.

Normal value:  

with the Ivy Method 3-7 minutes
with the Duke Method 1-3 minutes

Prolonged bleeding time occurs in patients with thrombocytopenia (low platelet levels up to 50,000 mg / dl), abnormal platelet function, blood vessel abnormalities, severe liver disease, aplastic anemia, lack of blood clotting factors, and leukemia. In addition, the extension of bleeding time can also be caused by drugs such as salicylates (anti-fungal skin drugs), anticoagulant drugs warfarin (anti-blood clotting), dextran, and others.

Freezing Period

An examination to see how long it takes for the blood clotting process. This is to monitor the use of oral anticoagulants (anti-clotting drugs). If the clotting period> 2.5 times the normal value, then the potential for bleeding. Normally blood clots in 4 – 8 minutes (Lee White Method).

Decreased clotting period occurs in myocardial infarction (heart attack), pulmonary embolism (lung disease), the use of birth control pills, vitamin K, digitalis (heart drugs), diuretics (drugs that function to secrete water, for example if there is swelling).

Extension of the clotting period occurs in patients with liver disease, lack of blood clotting factors, leukemia, congestive heart failure.

 BLOOD SEDIMENTATION RATE (BSR)

BSR to measure the speed of erythrocyte sedimentation (red blood cells) and describe the composition of plasma and its comparison between erythrocytes (red blood cells) and plasma. BSR can be used as a means of monitoring the success of therapy, the course of the disease, especially in chronic diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (rheumatism), and tuberculosis.

Increased LEDs occur in local or systemic acute infections (overall), trauma, second and third trimester pregnancies, chronic infections, cancer, surgery, burns. Reduced BSR occur in congestive heart failure, sickle cell anemia, clotting factor deficiency, and angina pectoris (heart attack). In addition, the decrease in BSR can also be caused by the use of drugs such as aspirin, cortisone, quinine, ethambutol.

BLOOD CHEMICAL EXAMINATION

G6PD (GLUCOSE 6 PHHosphate DEHYDROGENASE)

An examination of a type of enzyme in red blood cells to see a person’s susceptibility to hemolytic anemia. G6PD deficiency is a genetic disorder related to X genes carried by female chromosomes. The normal value in the blood is negative G6PD

G6PD reduction is found in hemolytic anemia, bacterial infections, viral infections, diabetes acidosis.
An increase in G6PD can also occur due to drugs such as aspirin, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) vitamin K, acetylide.

 BMP (BONE MARROW PUNCTION)

Microscopic examination of bone marrow to assess the nature and activity of hemopoetiknya (formation of blood cells). This examination is usually done on patients who are suspected of suffering from leukemia.

The normal ME (myeloid-erythrocyte) ratio or ratio between nucleated leukocytes and nucleated erythrocytes is 3: 1 or 4: 1

 HEMOSIDERIN / FERITINE

Hemosiderin is a reserve of iron in the body that is needed for the formation of hemoglobin. This examination is intended to determine whether there is a lack of iron in the body that leads to the risk of suffering from anemia.

 ALCOHOL EXAMINATION IN PLASMA

Examination to detect alcohol intoxication (alcohol poisoning) and carried out for medical and legal purposes. Increased blood alcohol exceeds 100 mg / dl classified as moderate alcohol intoxication and can occur in chronic alcohol drinkers, liver cirrhosis, malnutrition, folic acid deficiency, acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and hypo-glycemia (low levels of folic acid) blood sugar levels).

 LACTOS TOLERANCE EXAMINATION

Lactose is a saccharide sugar that is found in many dairy products and preparations. Lactose by intestinal enzymes is converted into glucose and galactose. Lactose buildup in the intestines can occur due to lack of the enzyme lactase, causing diarrhea, abdominal cramps (stomach cramps), and flatus (farts) constantly, this is called lactose intolerance. in large quantities is then checked for blood sugar levels. If the blood glucose value is> 20 mg / dl of fasting blood sugar, it means that lactose is converted into glucose or lactose tolerance, and if glucose when <20 mg / dl from fasting blood sugar levels, glucose intolerance means. It is better to avoid consuming dairy products. This can be overcome by gradually getting used to the consumption of dairy products.

Normal value: 

in plasma <0.5 mg / dl
in urine 12-40 mg / dl

 DHL (DEHYDROGENASE LACTATE)

Is one of the enzymes that release hydrogen, and is widely distributed in tissues, especially the kidneys, skeleton, liver, and heart muscle.

Increased DHL indicates tissue damage. DHL will increase to its peak 24-48 hours after myocardial infarction (heart attack) and remain normal 1-3 weeks later. Normal value: 80 – 240 U / L

SGoT (Glutamic Oxygenolacetic
Transaminase Serum )

Is a transaminase enzyme, which is in the serum and tissues, especially the liver and heart. High SGOT release in serum indicates damage to the heart and liver tissue.

Normal value:

Men sd37 U / L
Woman up to 31 U / L

This examination aims to detect the presence of lactose intolerance by giving lactose drinking
SGOT increase <3x normal = occurs due to inflammation of the heart muscle, cirrhosis of the liver, pulmonary infarction, and others.

SGX 3-5X increase in normal = due to blocked bile ducts, congestive heart failure, liver tumors, and others.

SGOT increase> 5x normal = damage to all liver cells, myocardial infarction (heart attack), acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and others.

 SGPT (Serum Glutamic Pyruvik Transaminase)

Is a transaminase enzyme that is normally in the body’s tissues, especially the liver. An increase in blood serum indicates trauma or liver damage.

Normal value: 

Men up to 42 U / L
Woman up to 32 U / L

An increase of> 20x occurs normally in viral hepatitis, toxic hepatitis.
A 3 – 10x increase occurs normally in nuclear infections, active chronic hepatitis, myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Increased 1-3 times normally occur in pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the bile.

URIC ACID

Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism (an important part of nucleic acids in DNA and RNA). The urine is found in foods including: meat, organ meats, nuts, yeast, gnetum and processed products. Substitution of purines in the body takes place continuously and produces a lot of uric acid even though there is no food input that contains uric acid.

Gout is mostly produced in the liver and transported to the kidneys. Normal purine intake through food will produce 0.5 -1 g / day. Increased uric acid in serum and urine depends on kidney function, purine metabolism, and food intake. Uric acid in the urine will form crystals / stones in the urinary tract. Some individuals with uric acid levels> 8 mg / dl already have complaints and need treatment. Normal value:

Men 3,4 – 8.5 mg / dl (blood)
Woman 2,8 – 7,3 mg / dl (blood)
Son 2.5 – 5.5 mg / dl (blood)
Elderly 3.5 – 8.5 mg / dl (blood)
Adult 250 – 750 mg / 24 hours (urine)

Increased uric acid levels occur in alcoholics, leukemia, spread of cancer, severe diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, congestive heart failure, lead poisoning, malnutrition, heavy exercise. It can also be caused by drugs such as acetaminophen, vitamin C, long-term aspirin, diuretics.

A decrease in uric acid occurs in anemia with folic acid deficiency, burns, pregnancy, and others. Medications that can reduce uric acid are allopurinol, probenecid, and others.
Creatinine

Is the final product of muscle creatine metabolism and creatine phosphate (protein) produced in the liver. Found in skeletal muscle and blood, excreted in urine. An increase in serum is not affected by food and fluid intake.

 Normal value in blood: 

Men 0.6 – 1.3 mg / dl
Woman 0.5 – 0.9 mg / dl
Son 0.4 -1.2 mg / dl
Baby 0.7 -1.7 mg / dl
Newborn baby 0.8 -1.4 mg / dl

An increase in creatinine in the blood indicates a decrease in kidney function and a decrease in skeletal muscle mass. This can occur in patients with kidney failure, cancer, high beef consumption, heart attacks. Drugs that can increase creatinine levels are vitamin C, cephalosporin, aminoglycoside, and other antibiotics.

BUN (BLOOD UREA NITROGEN)

BUN is the end product of protein metabolism, made by the liver. In normal people, urea is excreted in the urine.

Normal value:

Adult 5-25 mg / dl
Son 5-20 mg / dl
Baby 5-15 mg / dl

The ratio of urea nitrogen and creatinine = 12: 1 – 20: 1

Triglyceride examination

Is a fatty acid compound produced from carbohydrates and stored in the form of animal fats. Triglycerides are a major cause of arterial disease compared to cholesterol.

Normal value: 

Baby 5-4o mg / dl
Son 10-135 mg / dl
Young adult up to 50 mg / dl
Old (> 50 years old) up to 190 mg / dl

Decreased serum triglyceride levels can occur due to protein malnutrition, congenital (abnormalities from birth). Drugs that can reduce triglycerides are ascorbic acid (vitamin C), metformin (oral anti diabetic obata).

Increased triglyceride levels occur in hypertension (high blood pressure), cerebral artery blockage, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, high carbohydrate diets, pregnancy. From the class of drugs, which can increase triglycerides namely birth control pills, especially estrogen.

 HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)

It is one of the 3 components of lipoprotein (a combination of protein and fat), contains high protein levels, small amounts of triglycerides and phospholipids, has general protein characteristics and is present in blood plasma. HDL is often called good fat, which can help reduce plaque buildup in blood vessels.

Normal value:

Men > 55 mg / dl
Woman > 65 mg / dl

Value at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), i.e.

High risk <35 mg / dl
Medium risk 35 – 45 mg / dl
Low risk > 6 mg / dl

Increased lipoproteins can be influenced by aspirin, contraception, sulfonamide.

 LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)

It is a plasma lipoprotein that contains a small amount of triglycerides, moderate phospholipids, moderate protein, and high cholesterol. LDL has a major role as a trigger for the occurrence of blood vessel obstruction leading to heart attacks, strokes, and other diseases.

Normal value: <150 mg / dl

high risk of coronary heart disease > 16 mg / dl
the risk of coronary heart disease happening 130 -159 mg / dl
low risk of coronary heart disease <130 mg / dl

VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein)

It is a plasma lipoprotein that contains triglycerides, high, phospholipids, and moderate cholesterol, as well as low protein. Classified as lipoprotein which has a big role in causing coronary heart disease.

Albumin

Albumin is a water-soluble protein, making up more than 50% of plasma protein, found in almost every body tissue. Albumin is produced in the liver, and serves to maintain osmotic colloidal blood pressure so that the pressure of vascular fluid (fluid in the blood vessels) can be maintained.

Normal value:

Adult 3.8 – 5.1 gr / dl
Son 4.0 – 5.8 gr / dl
Baby 4,4 – 5,4 gr / dl
Newborn baby 2.9 – 5.4 gr / dl

The decrease in albumin results in the release of vascular fluid (blood vessel fluid) into the tissues, causing edema (swelling). The decrease in albumin can also be caused by:

1 Reduced synthesis (production) due to malnutrition, chronic inflammation, malabsorption syndrome, chronic liver disease, genetic disorders.
2 Increased excretion (excretion), due to extensive burns, intestinal diseases, nephrotic syndrome (kidney disease).

BLOOD ELECTROLITE EXAMINATION

SODIUM (Na)

Sodium is one of the many minerals found in extracellular electrolyte fluid (outside the cell), has the effect of holding water, serves to maintain fluid in the body, activates enzymes, as conduction of nerve impulses.

Normal values ​​in serum:   

Adult 135-145 mEq / L
Son 135-145 mEq / L
Baby 134-150 mEq / L

Normal value in urine:

40-220 mEq / L / 24 hours

Na reduction occurs in diarrhea, vomiting, tissue injury, gastric lavage, low-salt diet, kidney failure, burns, the use of diuretic drugs (drugs for high blood whose function is to expel water in the body).

Increased Na occurs in patients with diarrhea, chronic heart problems, dehydration, high Na intake from food, hepatic failure (failure of liver function), and the use of antibiotics, cough medicines, laxative drugs (laxatives).

Na salt sources are: table salt, preserved products (cornedbeef, canned fish, shrimp paste, and others), cheese, / cherry fruit, tomato sauce, pickles, and others.

 

KALIUM (K)

Potassium is the body’s electrolytes found in vascular fluid (blood vessels), 90% are expressed through urine, an average of 40 mEq / L or 25-120 mEq / 24 hours even though low potassium input.

Normal value:

Adult 3.5 – 5.0 mEq / L
Son 3.6 – 5.8 mEq / L
Baby 3.6 – 5.8 mEq / L

Increased potassium (hyperkalemia) occurs if there are kidney disorders, the use of drugs, especially the cephalosporins, histamine, epinephrine, and others.

Decreased potassium (hypokalemia) occurs when potassium intake from food is low, urine output increases, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, surgical wounds.

Foods that contain potassium are fruits, juice, nuts, and others.

 CHLORIDE (Cl)

Is a negatively charged electrolyte, found in many extracellular fluids (outside the cell), not in the serum, plays an important role in the balance of body fluids, acid-base balance in the body. Chloride is mostly bound to sodium to form NaCI (sodium chloride).

Normal value:

Adult 95-105 mEq / L
Son 98-110 mEq / L
Baby 95 -110 mEq / L
Newborn baby 94-112 mEq / L

Chloride reduction can occur in people with vomiting, gastric lavage, diarrhea, low-salt diets, acute infections, burns, too much sweating, chronic heart failure, use of Thhiazid drugs, diuretics, and others.

Increased chloride occurs in people with dehydration, head injuries, increased sodium, kidney disorders, the use of cortisone drugs, asetazolamid, and others.

 

CALCIUM (Ca)

It is an electrolyte in serum, plays a role in electrolyte balance, tetany prevention, and can be used to detect thyroid and parathyroid hormone disorders.

Normal value:

Adult 9-11 mg / dl (in serum); <150 mg / 24 hours (in urine & low-Ca diet); 200 – 300 mg / 24 hours (in urine & diets high in Ca)
Son 9 -11.5 mg / dl
Baby 10 -12 mg / dl
Newborn baby 7.4 -14 mg / dl.

Decreased calcium can occur in conditions of gastrointestinal malabsorption, lack of calcium and vitamin D intake, chronic kidney failure, extensive infections, burns, inflammation of the pancreas, diarrhea, alcoholics, pregnancy. In addition, the decrease in calcium can also be triggered by the use of laxatives, stomach ulcers, insulin, and other drugs.

Increased calcium occurs due to malignancy (cancer) in the bones, lungs, breasts, bladder, and kidneys. In addition, excess vitamin D, the presence of kidney stones, excessive exercise, and other substances, can also stimulate an increase in calcium levels in the body.

 BLOOD SUGAR EXAMINATION

Examination of blood sugar levels in venous blood when the patient is fasting 12 hours before the examination (blood sugar satisfied nuchter) or 2 hours after eating (post prandial blood sugar).

Normal value of fasting blood sugar:

Adult 70 -110 mg / dl
Son 60-100 mg / dl
Newborn baby 30-80 mg / dl

 Widal test

This is an examination to help diagnose the typhoid. This test uses Salmonella type O antigens (somat / k) and H (flagellum) to determine the level of antibody titer. Antibody titer in people with typhoid will increase in week II. Then the O antibody titer will decrease after a few months, and the H antibody titer will remain for several years.

If the antibody titer 0 rises immediately after a fever, there is an Salmonella strain O infection and so is the strain H.

 TORCH EXAMINATION

Examination to identify the presence of Toxoplasma Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses in mothers and newborns, through maternal blood samples. This examination needs to be done if there is a previous history or suspected congenital / tal infection (congenital) in newborns which is marked by the results of immunoglobulin G examination in the fetus is higher than in the mother.

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that lives in the intestines of domestic pets, especially dogs and cats. In addition, it is suspected that this parasite is also found in rats, pigeons, chickens, cows, goats, and buffalo, so it is easily transmitted to humans. If this parasite infects pregnant women, it can cause infection in the
normal value of TORCH examination in the lgG of pregnant women and fetuses is negative.

 ANTIGENAL (PSA) SPECIFIC POSTATES

PSA is a glycoprotein from prostate tissue that increases if hypertrophy occurs (enlargement) and rises even higher in prostate cancer sufferers.

PSA examination in prostate cancer patients serves to monitor the development of cancer cells. This examination is more sensitive than prostate phosphatase, but examination of a combination of both will be more accurate.

Reference value:

There are no prostate abnormalities 0-4 ng / ml
Benign prostate enlargement 4 -19 ng / ml
Prostate cancer 10-20 ng / ml

 REDUCTION INSPECTION

Examination to detect the presence of glucose in the urine by using Benedict, Fehling’s reagents, and others. Results are stated with:

Negative if the color remains (no glucose)
Positive 1 (+) if the color is yellowish green and turbid (0.5-1% glucose is present)
Positive 2 (++) if the color is murky yellow (there is 1 -1.5% glucose)
Positive 3 (+++) if the color is orange like muddy mud (there are 2-3.5% glucose)
Positive 4 (++++) if the color is cloudy red (there is> 3.5% glucose)

Fetus and physical disability after birth, with symptoms of retinitis, hydrocephalus, microcephalus, and others. Reduction (+) in unn indicates hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) above 170 mg%, because the renal threshold value for glucose absorption is 170 mg%. If the result of a reduction examination (+) accompanied by hyperglycemia indicates the presence of Diabetes Mellitus.

.

SPERM ANALYSIS

It is an examination with sperm material to see the amount, volume of fluid, percentage of mature sperm, movement, and other things. This examination is useful to determine the cause of infertility in men.

 Normal values ​​in adult men:

amount 50-150 million / ml
Volume 1.5-5.0 ml
Shape 75% cooked
Mobility 60% active moves

Deviations from the upper normal CFF value, usually occurs in vasectomy, infertility, cancer treatment, and estrogen-containing medications (female hormones).

Thanks For Attention.

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