Again, addicted to drugs, how come?

In Health 395 views

Preliminary

The world is increasingly developing, in all fields of humanity is progressing. One of the advances is information technology. With this technology, it is possible to accelerate and facilitate information both domestically and abroad. This certainly has an effect on human life both positive effects such as the sharing of useful knowledge, but on the other hand there are negative effects, namely the ease of information about negative things such as prostitution, online gambling and one of them is drug abuse. Drug abuse in Indonesia, lately increasingly widespread and has spread to the level of adolescents and even elementary school age children. We need to be aware and anticipate well about this, starting from ourselves then to the people who are closest to us,and the important thing is starting from now too.

Around us today, there are many addictive substances that are negative and very dangerous for the body. Known as narcotics and illegal drugs. In the past, drugs were only used limitedly by several human communities in various countries. But now, drugs have spread in an increasingly broad spectrum. In the modern era and the latest capitalism, drugs have become a problem for mankind in various parts of the world. Drugs that can tear apart bright reason, damage the body and soul, can no doubt threaten the future of humanity. Even though 2,000 years ago records of the use of cocaine in the Andean region – the use of adat, for survival (until now) withstand hunger and thirst, fatigue, help breathing,while Opium is used as a sedative (painkiller) and aphrodisiac (aphrodisiac). In the past in many countries these drugs were used for medicinal purposes, but over time, drug abuse was started by doctors, who prescribed new drug ingredients for various treatments even though they knew about their side effects. Then the dependency became worse after the discovery of morphine (1804) – prescribed as anaesthetic, widely used during the war in the 19th century until now and drug abuse in various countries that are difficult to control until now.who prescribe new drug ingredients for various treatments even though they know about their side effects. Then the dependency became worse after the discovery of morphine (1804) – prescribed as anaesthetic, widely used during the war in the 19th century until now and drug abuse in various countries that are difficult to control until now.who prescribe new drug ingredients for various treatments even though they know about their side effects. Then the dependency became worse after the discovery of morphine (1804) – prescribed as anaesthetic, widely used during the war in the 19th century until now and drug abuse in various countries that are difficult to control until now.

UNDERSTANDING OF DRUGS

Narcotics or drugs are substances / substances that can affect a person’s psychological / psychological condition (thoughts, feelings and behavior) and can cause physical and psychological dependence. Included in drugs are: Narcotics, Psychotropic and other addictive substances.

Drug abuse is the use of one or several types of drug regularly or regularly outside of medical indications, causing physical health, psychological and social function disorders.

Dependence is a condition in which physical and psychological dependence has occurred, so the body needs an increasing number of drugs (tolerance), if its use is reduced or stopped symptoms of withdrawal will occur (withdrawing symptoms). Therefore, he always tries to get the drug he needs in any way, so that he can carry out his normal daily activities.

Types Of Drugs

  • Narcotics

According to Republic Indonesia Law No. 22/1997, Narcotics are: substances or drugs originating from plants or non-plants both synthetic and semisynthetic that can cause a decrease or change of consciousness, loss of taste, reduce to eliminate pain, and can cause dependence. Narcotics consist of 3 groups:

  1. Group I: Narcotics which can only be used for the purpose of developing science and not used in therapy, and has a very high potential to result in dependency. Example: Heroin, Cocaine, Marijuana.
  2. Group II: Narcotics which have medicinal properties, are used as a last resort and can be used in therapy and / or for the purpose of scientific development and have high potential to cause dependence. Example: Morfin, Petidin.
  3. Group III: Narcotics which have medicinal properties and are widely used in therapy and / or scientific exploratory purposes and have mild potential to cause dependence. Example: Codein.
  • Psychotropic drugs

According to RI Law No. 5/1997, Psychotropics are: substances or drugs, both natural and synthetic not narcotics, which are psychoactive through selective effects on the central nervous system that cause specific changes in mental activity and behavior. Psychotropic consists of 4 groups:

  1. Group I: Psychotropic which can only be used for scientific purposes and is not used in therapy, and has a strong potential to cause dependency syndrome. Example: Ecstasy.
  2. Group II: Psychotropic medicine which has medicinal properties and can be used in therapy and / or for scientific purposes and has strong potential to cause dependency syndrome. Example: Amphetamine.
  3. Group III: Psychotropic medicine which has medicinal properties and is widely used in therapy and / or for scientific purposes and has the potential to cause dependency syndrome. Example: Phenobarbital.
  4. Group IV: Psychotropic medicine which has medicinal properties and is very widely used in therapy and / or for scientific purposes and has mild potential to cause dependency syndrome. Example: Diazepam, Nitrazepam (BK, DUM).
  • Other Addictive Substances

Other addictive substances include: substances / substances that have a psychoactive influence outside Narcotics and Psychotropics, including:

  1. Alcoholic drinks: contain ethanol ethyl alcohol, which has an effect on suppressing the central nervous system, and is often a part of everyday human life in certain cultures. If used together with Narcotics or Psychotropics will strengthen the influence of drugs / substances in the human body. There are 3 classes of alcoholic drinks: a. Group A: ethanol content 1 – 5% (Beer). b. Group B: ethanol content of 5-20% (Various wines). c. Group C: ethanol content of 20 – 45% (Whiskey, Vodca, Manson House, Johny Walker).
  2. Inhalation (inhaled gas) and solvents (solvents) are volatile in the form of organic compounds, which are found in various household goods, offices, and as engine lubricants. Which is often misused is: Glue, thinner, Nail Polish Remover, Gasoline.
  3. Tobacco: the use of tobacco containing nicotine is very widespread in the community.
  4. In an effort to overcome drug in the community, the use of cigarettes and alcohol, especially in adolescents, must be part of prevention efforts, because smoking and alcohol are often the entry point for other dangerous drug abuse.

Negative Effects

Adolescence is a phase of development between childhood and adulthood. A person’s development in childhood and adolescence will shape the person’s self-development in adulthood. That is why if the days of children and adolescents are damaged by drugs, then the future is bleak or even destroyed.

In adolescence, it is the desire to try, follow the trends and lifestyle, and have enormous fun. Although all of these tendencies are perfectly natural, it can also make it easier for adolescents to be encouraged to abuse drugs. The data show that the most number of drug users are in the teen age group.

The problem becomes even worse if due to drug use, adolescents are infected and transmit HIV / AIDS among teenagers. This has been proven from the use of drugs through the syringes alternately. This nation will lose many adolescents due to drug abuse and the spread of HIV / AIDS. Losing adolescents is the same as losing human resources for the nation

Drug abuse besides harming one’s own health also negatively impacts one’s economic and social life. Drug abuse can damage the economy because of the nature of drugs that create dependence, where the user’s body always requests additional doses and with the price of drugs that are classified as relatively expensive then it is economically very detrimental. The family economy can go bankrupt if the family is no longer able to finance its members’ dependence on drugs, even this can have a bad impact that can lead to crime problems such as theft, robbery and even robbery.

Family harmony can be disrupted when one or more family members become addicted. The destructive nature of the drug physically and psychologically will have an impact on the discomfort of social relations in the family. Drug abusers also cause unrest in society. Uncontrolled user behavior can disturb public order and security. Especially if it is associated with the emergence of various accompanying diseases such as Hepatitis, HIV / AIDS, and even death.

This can further lead to the destruction of a country, therefore the state prohibits drugs. Law Number 22 of 1997 concerning Narcotics states:

  • Article 45: Narcotics addicts must undergo treatment and / or treatment
  • Article 36: An addict’s parents or guardians who are not old enough if intentionally not reporting are threatened with confinement for a maximum of 6 (six) months or a maximum fine of one million rupiah.
  • Article 88: Adult drug addicts who deliberately do not report are threatened with confinement for a maximum of 6 (six) months or a maximum fine of two million rupiahs, while for their families a maximum of 3 (three) months or a maximum fine of one million rupiahs.
  • Law Number 5 of 1997 concerning Psychotropics states:
  • Article 37 paragraph (1): Psychotropic users suffering from dependency syndrome are obliged to participate in treatment or care
  • Article 64 paragraph (1) whosoever: a. deter people with dependency syndrome from undergoing treatment and / or treatment from rehabilitation facilities as intended in Article 37, shall be sentenced to a maximum of 1 (one) year imprisonment and / or a maximum fine of 20 million rupiah.

The dangers arising from drug abuse in general are as follows:

Physical aspects

  • Kidney failure
  • Fatty liver, liver contraction, liver cancer
  • Pneumonia, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Susceptible to various diseases of hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV / AIDS
  • Fetal Defects
  • Impotence
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Pale due to lack of blood (anemia)
  • Memory loss / senile dementia
  • Brain damage
  • Stomach bleeding
  • Pancreatic inflammation
  • Nerve inflammation
  • Easy bruising
  • Impaired cardiac function
  • Cause death
  • Psychological aspects
  • Uncontrolled emotions
  • Suspicion of exaggeration to the level of delusions (not in line between thought and reality)
  • Always lying
  • Do not feel safe
  • Not able to take reasonable decisions
  • Has no responsibility
  • Excessive anxiety and depression
  • Unbelievable fear
  • Memory loss (crazy)

Social aspects

Relationships with family, teachers, and friends and the environment are disruptedDisturb public orderAlways avoid contact with othersFeeling ostracized or withdrawing from positive surroundingsDo not care about the norms and valuesHaving sex freelyDo not care about the norms and valuesCommitting acts of violence, both physical, psychological and sexual

  •  Relationships with family, teachers, and friends and the environment are disrupted
  • Disturb public order
  • Always avoid contact with others
  • Feeling ostracized or withdrawing from positive surroundings
  • Do not care about the norms and values
  • Having sex freely
  • Do not care about the norms and values
  • Committing acts of violence, both physical, psychological and sexual

Causes Of Drug Abuse

Drug abuse generally occurs in adolescents who live in urban areas. They usually have a cosmopolitan nature, they are relatively not quick to get married because they have to take a period of study to university level, even to get a job considered appropriate. At that time they lived in transition; between childhood and maturity, both physical, mental, and socio-cultural. He lives between freedom and dependence on his parents; they exist in the formation of their own values ​​and attitudes, both religious attitudes, as well as cultural and social attitudes. Teenagers are looking for the identity of their attitudes towards the environment and each other. In these ambiguous conditions teenagers often slip into the path of delinquency, which is called juvenile delinquency. At that time many teenagers who do mischief,violation of the law, even criminal acts. His motivation is because he wants to get attention “social status”, and appreciation for his existence.

In other words, juvenile delinquency is a form of self-existence statement in the midst of the environment and society, not mere delinquency. One of these behavioral deviations is sexual behavior. While one form of violation of the law is drinking alcohol, illegal drugs to cannabis and other addictive substances.

The cause is very complex due to the interaction of various factors:

Drug abuse generally occurs in adolescents who live in urban areas. They usually have a cosmopolitan nature, they are relatively not quick to get married because they have to take a period of study to university level, even to get a job considered appropriate. At that time they lived in transition; between childhood and maturity, both physical, mental, and socio-cultural. He lives between freedom and dependence on his parents; they exist in the formation of their own values ​​and attitudes, both religious attitudes, as well as cultural and social attitudes. Teenagers are looking for the identity of their attitudes towards the environment and each other. In these ambiguous conditions teenagers often slip into the path of delinquency, which is called juvenile delinquency. At that time many teenagers who do mischief,violation of the law, even criminal acts. His motivation is because he wants to get attention “social status”, and appreciation for his existence.

In other words, juvenile delinquency is a form of self-existence statement in the midst of the environment and society, not mere delinquency. One of these behavioral deviations is sexual behavior. While one form of violation of the law is drinking alcohol, illegal drugs to cannabis and other addictive substances.

The cause is very complex due to the interaction of various factors:

Individual factors

Line-height: 150%; “> Most start in adolescence, because teenagers are undergoing rapid biological, psychological and social changes. Characteristics of adolescents who have a greater risk of using drugs:

  • Tend to rebel
  • Have other mental disorders, for example: depression, anxiety.
  • Behavior that deviates from existing rules or norms
  • Lack of confidence
  • Easily disappointed, aggressive and destructive
  • Depressed, shy, quiet
  • Feel bored and bored
  • The desire for excessive pleasure
  • The desire to try is in fashion
  • Blurred self identity
  • Low communication skills
  • Dropout
  • Lack of faith and trust.

Environmental factor 

Environmental factors include family and social factors around the house, school, peers, and the community.

  • Family environment
    • Poor communication between parents and children
    • The relationship is less harmonious
    • Divorced parents remarry
    • Old people are too busy, indifferent
    • Authoritarian parents
    • Lack of people who are role models in his life
    • Lack of religious life.
  • Family environment
    • Poor communication between parents and children
    • The relationship is less harmonious
    • Divorced parents remarry
    • Old people are too busy, indifferent
    • Authoritarian parents
    • Lack of people who are role models in his life
    • Lack of religious life.
  • School EnvironmentSchools that lack discipline Discipline is located near entertainment venues Schools that lack opportunities for students to develop themselves creatively and positively There are students who use drugs
  • Peer Environment Friend with abusers Pressures or threats from friends.
  • Community / Social Environment Weak law enforcement officers Political, social and economic situations are less supportive.

As for other high-risk factors so that teens can use drugs, including:

  • Disorganized families, especially parents who become drug abusers or suffer mental illness
  • Parents and children lack mutual love and care
  • Very shy child / teenager
  • Children who behave aggressively
  • Failed to take lessons in school
  • Poor social skills
  • Joining peer groups who behave strayly
  • Cannot communicate with parents
  • Not under the supervision of parents
  • Like to look for sensations
  • Ostracized and difficult to adjust to the environment
  • Do not want to follow the rules / norms / rules
  • Plan your spiritual appreciation.
  • The characteristics of drug abusers
  • Daily physical and environmental changes
  • Staggering road, talking pelo, looked sleepy
  • Rooms don’t want to be checked or are always locked
  • Often visited or received calls from people who are not known
  • Found medicines, tin foil, syringes, matches in the room / in a bag.
  • There are signs of injection marks or incisions
  • Frequent loss of money / goods at home
  • Lazy to study
  • Easily offended
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Avoid direct eye contact
  • Lying or manipulating circumstances
  • Lack of discipline
  • Stupid or confused
  • Likes to play hooky
  • Ignoring worship activities
  • Withdraw from family activities
  • Often alone or hiding in the bathroom, in warehouses or closed places.

Drugs And Religion

Narcotics and liquor have long been known to mankind. But actually there are more advantages than benefits. For this reason, almost all major religions forbid humanity from consuming narcotics and alcohol (in the broader form are drugs)

In the Islamic discourse, there are several verses of the Koran and hadith that prohibit humans from consuming alcohol and intoxicants. In more recent orders, intoxicants and intoxicants can also be analogous to drugs. When Islam was born from the blazing desert through the Prophet Muhammad, the most popular dangerous substance was indeed liquor (khamar). In the development of the Islamic world, khamar then rubbed, metamorphosed and gave birth in an increasingly sophisticated form, which was then commonly called narcotics or more broadly narcotics.

For this reason, in analogy, the prohibition of consuming alcohol and intoxicants is the same as the prohibition of consuming drugs. There are two surahs of the Koran and two hadith that are trying to be launched here, the translation of which is roughly like this:

“O you who believe, verily (drink) khamar, gamble, (sacrifice for) idols, draw lots of fortune with arrows, including the actions of shaitan. So stay away from these actions so that you get good luck. ” (Surat al-Maidah: 90)

Then the second verse:

“Indeed, the devil intends to cause hostility and hatred among you because of (drinking) the khamar and gambling, and prevents you from remembering Allah and praying; then stop you (from doing the work) “. (Surat al-Maidah: 91)

Satan’s actions are things that lead to evil, darkness, and the destructive aspects of humans. This can all be triggered from khamar (drugs) and gambling because it can anesthetize healthy and clear reasoning. Khamar (drugs) and gambling are very close to the world of crime and violence, so according to the Qur’an khamar (drugs) and gambling have the potential to trigger hostility and hatred between people. Khamar and gambling can also turn someone away from Allah and pray.

In addition to the two verses of the Qur’an above, there are also hadiths that prohibit khamar / liquor (read: drugs), namely:

“Angel Gabriel came to me, then said, ‘O Muhammad, Allah is cursing liquor, the makers, the people who help make them, the drinkers, the recipients and the depositors, the sellers, the buyers, the presenters, and the people who want to be served.’ (Narrated by Ahmad bin Hambal from Ibn Abbas)

Then the second hadith:

“Every substance, ingredient or drink that can intoxicate and weaken is khamar, and every khamar is haram”. (Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar).

It is clear from the hadith above, khamar (drug) can rub someone to a low and despicable degree because it can be intoxicating and debilitating. For this reason, khamar (in the wider form of drugs) is prohibited and forbidden. Meanwhile, people who are involved in the abuse of khamar (drugs) are cursed by God, whether it’s the maker, the wearer, the seller, the buyer, the treatant, and the person who wants to be treated.

Not only Islam, several other religions also warn (give a serious warning) to adherents or more generally humanity, to stay away from drugs.

LIFE MUST BE ENJOYED, DUDE! BE WISE … !!

Many things can be done for young people for this life. Associating of course you have to, but somehow you have to control yourself so that you don’t drift away. We should even control our relationships.

Factors that can prevent teens from using drugs:

  • Increase faith and piety towards God Almighty.
    • This is the basis and self-guidance in living life. Any religion that is adhered to, is rightly good, and there is no single religion that teaches to harm yourself let alone harm others.
  • Strong ties in the family
    • Parental supervision based on clear rules of behavior and parental involvement in the life of the child / teen
    • Success in school
    • Strong ties within pro-social institutions such as families, schools, and religious organizations.
    • Accept the norm of habit about prohibiting drug use.
    • Families must be able to create better communication
    • Discipline, strict and consistent with the rules made
    • Play an active role in the lives of children
    • Monitor their activities
    • Knowing who your child / teen is hanging out with
    • Understand the problem and what concerns them
    • Parents must be role models
    • Parents become discussion partners
    • Parents become a place to ask
    • Able to develop family traditions and religious values
    • Explores the potential of children to be developed through various activities.
  • Increase faith and piety towards God Almighty.
    • This is the basis and self-guidance in living life. Any religion that is adhered to, is rightly good, and there is no single religion that teaches to harm yourself let alone harm others.
  • Strong ties in the family
    • Parental supervision based on clear rules of behavior and parental involvement in the life of the child / teen
    • Success in school
    • Strong ties within pro-social institutions such as families, schools, and religious organizations.
    • Accept the norm of habit about prohibiting drug use.
    • Families must be able to create better communication
    • Discipline, strict and consistent with the rules made
    • Play an active role in the lives of children
    • Monitor their activities
    • Knowing who your child / teen is hanging out with
    • Understand the problem and what concerns them
    • Parents must be role models
    • Parents become discussion partners
    • Parents become a place to ask
    • Able to develop family traditions and religious values
    • Explores the potential of children to be developed through various activities.

The solution that can be done when there are family members who use drugs:

  • Try to calm down, control your emotions, do not be angry and offended
    • Don’t postpone problems, face up to reality, have open dialogues with children
    • Listen to children, give non-verbal encouragement. Don’t give excessive lectures / advice
    • Appreciate honesty
    • Be honest with yourself, don’t feel right about yourself
    • Improve relationships in the family, plan to make activities with the family
    • Seek help, seek help from third parties who understand how to deal with drugs or professionals, puskesmas, hospitals, homes / rehabilitation centers.
    • Approach parents of child friends of drug users, express them carefully and invite them to work together to face problems.

So, life is beautiful, friend, whatever problems are plagued there must be a solution. Do not be tempted by impingement on drugs, because it is only false. When we fly, your problem still continues. Don’t hesitate to ask for the nearest health care.

Of course we can !!


BIBLIOGRAPHY

M. Arief Hakim, Dangers of Alcohol Drugs: Islamic Ways to Overcome, Prevent and Fight, Bandung: Nuance, 2004.

Brochure Directorate of Social Services and Rehabilitation for NAPZA Victims, Ministry of Social Affairs RI

Carpenito, LJ (1995). Nursing diagnostic pocket book. Issue 6. (translation). Jakarta: EGC Medical Book Publisher.

Doenges, Marilynn E., et all. 2007. Psychiatric Nursing Care Plan Edition 3 . Jakarta: EGC

Keliat, Budi A., et al. 2011. Management of CMHN (Intermediate Course) Mental Disorders Case . Jakarta: EGC

Martono lydia harlina, et al. 2006. Community-based drug addict recovery . Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Simuh, et al., Sufism and Crisis, Semarang, Student Library, 2001.

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